Aqueous battery chemistries and materials for water-compatible, smart textiles are discussed in detail. Recent examples of flexible or textile-based prototypes are given.
Aqueous battery chemistries and materials are critical for water-compatible, smart textiles. Much of the previous research on textile batteries has focused on lithium-ion battery chemistries, but these are extremely sensitive to air and water. There are several water-based battery chemistries, both non-rechargeable and rechargeable, that could be successfully used in textile batteries without concern for air or water exposure. These include aqueous lithium-ion batteries, zinc-carbon batteries, alkaline batteries, zinc-ion batteries, and aqueous metal-air batteries. Herein, these batteries are discussed in detail, and recent examples of flexible or textile-based prototypes are given.