Human-Machine Teaming Systems Engineering Guide

By Patricia McDermott , Cynthia Dominguez, Ph.D. , Nicholas Kasdaglis, Ph.D. , Matthew Ryan , Isabel Trahan , Alexander Nelson

This guide coalesces applied research findings for developers of automation, autonomy, and AI technologies, including a framework organizing human machine teaming research, methodology for engaging with users, and a set of adaptable requirements.

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With the explosion of Automation, Autonomy, and AI technology development today, amid encouragement to put humans at the center of AI, systems engineers and user story/requirements developers need research-based guidance on how to design for human machine teaming (HMT). Insights from more than two decades of human-automation interaction research, applied in the systems engineering process, provide building blocks for designing automation, autonomy, and AI-based systems that are effective teammates for people.

The HMT Systems Engineering Guide provides this guidance based on a 2016-17 literature search and analysis of applied research. The guide provides a framework organizing HMT research, along with methodology for engaging with users of a system to elicit user stories and/or requirements that reflect applied research findings. The framework uses organizing themes of Observability, Predictability, Directing Attention, Exploring the Solution Space, Directability, Adaptability, Common Ground, Calibrated Trust, Design Process, and Information Presentation.

The guide includes practice-oriented resources that can be used to bridge the gap between research and design, including a tailorable HMT Knowledge Audit interview methodology, step-by-step instructions for planning and conducting data collection sessions, and a set of general cognitive interface requirements that can be adapted to specific applications based upon domain-specific data collected.